Copyright (C) 1991, Digital Equipment Corporation           
 All rights reserved.                                        
 See the file COPYRIGHT for a full description.              
 Last modified on Thu Dec  9 11:29:00 PST 1993 by mcjones    
      modified on Thu Apr 29 13:58:11 PDT 1993 by muller     
      modified on Mon Feb 15 15:17:13 PST 1993 by ramshaw    

The generic interface Float provides access to the floating-point operations required or recommended by the IEEE floating-point standard. Consult the standard to resolve any fine points in the specification of the procedures. Non-IEEE implementations that have values similar to NaNs and infinities should explain how those values behave in an implementation guide. (NaN is an IEEE term whose informal meaning is ``not a number''.)


IMPORT FloatMode;


PROCEDURE Scalb(x: T; n: INTEGER): T RAISES {FloatMode.Trap};
Return $\hboxx\cdot 2^{\hboxn}$.

PROCEDURE Logb(x: T): T RAISES {FloatMode.Trap};
Return the exponent of x. More precisely, return the unique integer $n$ such that the ratio $\hboxABS(x) / Base^{n}$ is in the half-open interval [1..Base), unless x is denormalized, in which case return the minimum exponent value for T.

Like Logb, but returns an integer, never raises an exception, and always returns the $n$ such that $\hboxABS(x) / Base^{n}$ is in the half-open interval [1..Base), even for denormalized numbers. Special cases: it returns FIRST(INTEGER) when x = 0.0, LAST(INTEGER) when x is plus or minus infinity, and zero when x is NaN.

PROCEDURE NextAfter(x, y: T): T RAISES {FloatMode.Trap};
Return the next representable neighbor of x in the direction towards y. If x = y, return x.

PROCEDURE CopySign(x, y: T): T;
Return x with the sign of y.

Return TRUE if x is strictly between minus infinity and plus infinity. This always returns TRUE on non-IEEE implementations.

Return FALSE if x represents a numerical (possibly infinite) value, and TRUE if x does not represent a numerical value. For example, on IEEE implementations, returns TRUE if x is a NaN, FALSE otherwise.

\index{NaN (not a number)}

PROCEDURE Sign(x: T): [0..1];
Return the sign bit x. For non-IEEE implementations, this is the same as ORD(x >= 0); for IEEE implementations, Sign(-0) = 1 and Sign(+0) = 0.

PROCEDURE Differs(x, y: T): BOOLEAN;
Return (x < y OR y < x). Thus, for IEEE implementations, Differs(NaN,x) is always FALSE; for non-IEEE implementations, Differs(x,y) is the same as x # y.

PROCEDURE Unordered(x, y: T): BOOLEAN;
Return NOT (x <= y OR y <= x). Thus, for IEEE implementations, Unordered(NaN, x) is always TRUE; for non-IEEE implementations, Unordered(x, y) is always FALSE.

PROCEDURE Sqrt(x: T): T RAISES {FloatMode.Trap};
Return the square root of T. This must be correctly rounded if FloatMode.IEEE is TRUE.

  {SignalingNaN, QuietNaN, Infinity, Normal, Denormal, Zero};

PROCEDURE Class(x: T): IEEEClass;
Return the IEEE number class containing x. On non-IEEE systems, the result will be Normal or Zero.

PROCEDURE FromDecimal(
    sign: [0..1];
    READONLY digits: ARRAY OF [0..9];
    exp: INTEGER): T RAISES {FloatMode.Trap};
Convert from floating-decimal to type T.
 \index{floating-point!conversion from decimal}
   \index{decimal conversion!to floating-point}

Let F denote the nonnegative, floating-decimal number

      digits[0] . digits[1] ... digits[LAST(digits)] * 10^exp
      = sum(i, digits[i] * 10^(exp - i))
The result of FromDecimal is the number (-1)^sign * F, rounded to a value of type T.

The procedure FromDecimal is a floating-point operation, just like + and *, in the sense that it rounds its ideal result correctly, observing the current rounding mode, and it sets flags and raises traps by the usual rules. On IEEE implementations, it returns minus zero when F is sufficiently small and sign=1.

TYPE DecimalApprox = RECORD
    class: IEEEClass;
    sign: [0..1];
    len: [1..R.MaxSignifDigits];
    digits: ARRAY[0..R.MaxSignifDigits-1] OF [0..9];
    exp: INTEGER;
    errorSign: [-1..1]

PROCEDURE ToDecimal(x: T): DecimalApprox;
Convert from type T to floating-decimal.
 \index{floating-point!conversion to decimal}
   \index{decimal conversion!from floating-point}

Let D denote ToDecimal(x). Then, D.class = Class(x) and D.sign = Sign(x). The other fields are defined only when D.class is either Normal or Denormal. In those cases, the values D.len, D.digits[0] through D.digits[D.len-1], and D.exp encode a floating-decimal number F with the property that (-1)^D.sign * F approximates x in a sense discussed below. The encoding is such that

      F = digits[0] . digits[1] ... digits[len - 1]  *  10^exp
        = sum(i, digits[i] * 10^(exp - i))

      ABS(x) = F * (1 + errorSign * epsilon)
where epsilon is small and positive. In particular, D.errorSign is +1, 0, or -1 according as ABS(x) is larger than, equal to, or smaller than F.

The current rounding mode determines the sense in which the floating-decimal number (-1)^sign * F approximates x, but in a slightly subtle way. Define the opposite of a directed rounding mode by reversing the direction, as follows:

           Opp(TowardPlusInfinity) := TowardMinusInfinity
          Opp(TowardMinusInfinity) := TowardPlusInfinity
                   Opp(TowardZero) := AwayFromZero
Note that AwayFromZero isn't actually a rounding mode, but it is clear what it would mean if it were. For all other rounding modes M, we define Opp(M) = M. If the current rounding mode is M, the call ToDecimal(x) returns a floating-decimal number that FromDecimal would convert, under rounding mode Opp(M), back to x. Among all such numbers, the returned value has as few digits as possible. This implies that both D.digits[0] and D.digits[D.len-1] are nonzero. If there is a tie for having the fewest digits, the tying number closest to x wins. If there is also a tie for being closest to x, it must be a two-way tie and the number whose last digit is even wins.

Unlike FromDecimal, ToDecimal never sets a FloatMode.Flag and never raises FloatMode.Trap.

The idea of converting to decimal by retaining just as many digits as are necessary to convert back to binary exactly was popularized by Guy L.~Steele Jr.\ and Jon L White~\cite{Steele}. David M.~Gay pointed out the importance, in this context, of demanding that the conversion to binary handle mid-point cases by a known rule~\cite{Gay}. For example, in IEEE double precision, the floating-decimal number 1e23 is precisely halfway between two adjacent floating-binary numbers. If conversion to binary were allowed to go either way in such a mid-point case, conversion to decimal would have to avoid producing the simple number 1e23, producing instead either 1.0000000000000001e23 or 9.999999999999999e22. We believe the idea of combining the Steele/White style of automatic precision control with directed rounding by using opposite rounding modes, as above, is new with Lyle Ramshaw.

END Float.

interface FloatMode is in: