Last modified on Tue May 11 17:18:20 PDT 1993 by swart modified on Thu Nov 2 18:28:26 1989 by muller modified on Fri Sep 29 17:27:18 1989 by kalsow modified on Fri Jun 3 16:15:44 PDT 1988 by glassman modified on Tue Feb 9 19:53:16 1988 by luca

INTERFACETransform ;

Creating and manipulating 2-dimensional transformations This interface with 2 dimensional transformations. See Newman and Sproull, Chapter 4, for more information. Index: matrices, transformations ; transformations

IMPORT Point;

If X is of type T then X represents the matrix[ a11 a12 0 ] [ a21 a22 0 ] [ a31 a32 1 ]Points in the (h,v) coordinate system (e.g., those represented by Point.T's) are interpreted as (h,v)==(h, v, 1). An application of X to a point (h,v) consists of a single post-multiplication:(h, v, 1) [ a11 a12 0 ] (H, V, 1) [ a21 a22 0 ] = [ a31 a32 1 ]The values (H,V) are the transformed points. The transformation matrices have REAL elements however they operate on, and produce, integer elements. This is done as follows, shown for the H element above:H := TRUNC(FLOAT(h)*a11 + FLOAT(v)*a21 + a31 + 0.5)The leading 2 by 2 submatrix of X is the usual rotation/scaling matrix while the a31 and a32 elements provide translation. Composition is performed by pre-multiplication, i.e., A composed with B is AB

TYPE T = RECORD a11, a12, a21, a22, a31, a32: REAL END; PROCEDURE Identity (): T;

Returns the identity transformation. Use this to get new transformations

PROCEDURE Apply (tr: T; p: Point.T): Point.T;

Returns the result of applying the transformation`tr`

to the point`p`

.

PROCEDURE Translate (h, v: REAL; READONLY tr: T): T;

Returns the transformation that is the composition of the input transformation and the translation (h,v)

PROCEDURE Rotate (theta: REAL; READONLY tr: T): T;

Returns the transformation that is the composition of the input transformation and the rotation by `theta' radians

PROCEDURE Scale (fh, fv: REAL; READONLY tr: T): T;

Here are a few convenience proceduresReturns the transformation that is the composition of the input transformation and the scaling of the h axis by fh and the v axis by fv. Hence, the scaling is anisotropic if fh#fv

PROCEDURE FromPoint (READONLY p: Point.T): T;

Returns a translation transformation

PROCEDURE Compose (READONLY t1, t2: T): T;

Composes t1 and t2, result is t1*t2. Note that this means that t1 will be applied first by, e.g., Apply above.

PROCEDURE RotateAbout (READONLY p: Point.T; theta: REAL): T;

Returns the transformation that rotates`theta`

radians about the point`p`

. This is equivalent to the composition of three transformations: translate to origin, rotate theta, translate back to p

PROCEDURE IsoScale (f: REAL): T;

Returns a transformation that scales each axis by f

PROCEDURE AnIsoScale (fh, fv: REAL): T;

See Scale

PROCEDURE Compare (READONLY a, b: T): [-1 .. 1];

== RETURN (-1 if a.h < b.h) OR ((a.h = b.h) AND (a.v < b.v)), 0 if a = b, +1 o. w.)

PROCEDURE Equal (READONLY a, b: T): BOOLEAN;

== RETURN (a = b)

PROCEDURE Hash (READONLY a: T): INTEGER;

== RETURN a suitable hash value

END Transform.